There are lots of ways of putting up shelves.
Some systems are fixed, others adjustable – the choice is yours. Here’s how both types work, and how to get the best from each.
D eciding how much shelving you’ll need is always tricky – because, the more shelves you have, the more you’ll find to go on them! So it’s always wise to add an extra 10 per cent to the specification when you start planning.
Think carefully about what you want to store and display, and try to categorise it by size and weight. The size part is fairly easy. Concentrate first on the depth (from front to back) and length; a collection of paperback books, for instance, might need 3.5m (10ft) of 150mm (6in) deep shelves. Having the shelves a bit deeper than you really need is always worthwhile, and if you add 10 per cent the length should look after itself.
Next, the heights in each grouping will tell you roughly how far apart the shelves must be. Most paperbacks are 175mm (7in) high – allow an extra 25mm (1 in) for easy access and removal.
Finally, weight. The trouble here is that. Even if you weigh what you’ll be storing, you can’t translate the result into shelf, bracket and fixing materials or sizes. Instead, think in terms of light, moderately heavy and very heavy. Items such as the TV and stereo. While not especially weighty, are best treated as very heavy, because it would be nothing short of disastrous if a shelf did give way under them!
Where you put the shelves affects the amount of storage you can gain, how you build them, and the overall look of the room itself. This last may not be important in a workshop, for instance, but in a living room, where the shelves may well be the focal point, a bad decision can be serious.
The obvious spot for shelving is against a continuous wall. This offers most scope to arrange the shelves in an interesting and attractive way. An alcove is another possibility. Shelving here is neat, and easily erected; it is a very good way of using an otherwise awkward bit of space. A corner has similar advantages if you make triangular shelves to fit – though they’re really only suitable for displaying plants or favourite ornaments.
Planning it out
If appearance matters and you’re putting up a lot of shelves, a good way to plan is by making a scale drawing of the whole scheme to see how it looks. Then check for detail. If your TV has an indoor aerial, make sure you have room to adjust it. With stereo systems, ensure the shelf is deep enough to take all the wiring spaghetti at the back. And do think about the heights of the shelves from the floor along its length. This will usually be enough even with chipboard, which is the weakest of shelving materials. But bowing may still be a problem, so for items in the ‘very heavy’ category it’s advisable to increase the number of supports by reducing the space between them.
Chipboard is usually the most economical material, and if properly supported is strong enough for most shelving. It can be fairly attractive, too. Since you can choose a type with a decorative wood veneer or plastic finish. These come in a variety of widths -most of them designed with shelving in mind. Natural timber, though more costly and sometimes prone to warping, is an obvious alternative. You may have difficulty obtaining some timber in boards over 225mm (9in) wide, but narrower widths are readily available. For wider shelves, another way is to make up the shelf width from narrower pieces. An easy method is to leave gaps between the lengths and brace them with others which run from front to back on the underside, forming a slatted shelf.
Blockboard and plywood are also worth considering. They are both a lot stronger than chipboard and have a more attractive surface which can be painted or varnished without trouble. However, in the thicknesses you need – at least 12mm (1/2in) – plywood is relatively expensive; blockboard is cheaper, and chipboard cheaper still. All these man-made boards need to have their edges disguised to give a clean finish. An easy yet effective way to do this is just to glue and pin on strips of timber moulding or ‘beading’. Also remember that the cheapest way to buy any of these boards is in large sheets (approximately 2.4m x 1.2m/8ft x 4ft), so it’s most economical to plan your shelves in lengths and widths that can be cut from a standard size sheet.
Shelves needn’t be solid, though. If you want them extra-thick, for appearance or strength, you can make them up from a timber frame covered with a thin sheet material. Hardboard is cheap, but thin plywood gives a more attractive edge; alternatively use a timber edging strip.
When you design storage, plan ahead and think about you’re going to use it.
Height. Keep everyday items well within reach. That means between 750 and 1500mm (30 and 60in) off the ground. Depth. Shelves that are deepest (from front to back) should be lower, so you can see and reach to the back. Spacing. An inch or two over the actual height of the objects means you can get your hand in more easily.
The simplest method of fixing shelves is directly to the wall, using brackets. L-shaped metal brackets of various sizes and designs are available everywhere – some plain and functional, some with attractive lacquered or enamelled finishes. It’s just a question of choosing ones about 25mm (1 in) less than the shelf depth, spacing them the right distance apart and screwing them to both shelf and wall.
If you’re filling up your shelves with books, the support brackets won’t be seen. But if you’re using the shelves for ornaments, the brackets will be visible, so choose a style that blends. Alternatively, you can make up your own brackets from two pieces of timber butt-jointed into an L shape and braced with a diagonal strut or triangular block.
The fixing technique is the same either way. First you draw a line on the wall where the shelf is to go, using a spirit level. Next, fix the brackets to the shelf and put the whole assembly up against the line. Mark on to the wall through the pre-drilled screw holes in the brackets; then take the shelf away and drill holes in the wall, filling each with a plastic plug. Lastly, drive in one screw through each bracket; then insert the rest and tighten them all up.
Because the accuracy of this method relies largely on your ability to hold the shelf level against your line, you may find it easier to work the other way round. By fixing the brackets to the wall along the guide line, you can then drop the shelf into place and screw up into it through the brackets. This works, but you must position the brackets with great care, and avoid squeezing them out of position as you screw them into the wall. That isn’t always easy. For one thing, many brackets don’t have arms which meet at a neat right angle. They curve slightly, which makes it hard to align the top of the shelf-bearing arm with the line on the wall.
Making a firm fixing
Remember that the strength of all brackets depends partly on the length of their arms (particularly the one fixed to the wall) and partly on the strength of your fixing into the wall. The longer the wall arm in proportion to the shelf arm, the better; but it’s also important to use adequate screws – 38mm (1 Vain) No 8s or 10s should do – and to plug the wall properly. In a hollow partition wall you really must make sure you secure the brackets to the wall’s wooden framework and not just to the cladding. Even if you use plasterboard plugs or similar devices , a lot of weight on the shelf will cause the brackets to come away from the cladding and possibly damage the wall. Of course, there is a limit to how much weight the brackets themselves will take.
Under very wide shelves they may bend. With shelves that have heavy items regularly taken off and dumped back on, and shelves used as desk-tops, worktops and the like, the movement can eventually work the fixings loose. In such cases it’s best to opt for what’s called a cantilevered shelf bracket. Part of this is set into the masonry to give a very strong fixing indeed. Details of its installation vary from brand to brand, but you should get instructions when you buy.
All proprietary brackets are expensive. However, for alcove shelving there’s a much cheaper alternative, and that is to use battens screwed to the wall. All you do is fix a 50 x 25mm (2 x 1 in) piece of softwood along the back of the alcove, using screws driven into plastic plugs at roughly 450mm (18in) centres. Then screw similar ones to the side walls, making sure that they line up with the first. In both cases, getting the battens absolutely level is vital. In fact, it’s best to start by drawing guidelines using a spirit level as a straight edge.
A front ‘rail’ is advisable where the shelf spans a wide alcove and has to carry a lot of weight. But there’s a limit to what you can do. With a 50 x 25mm (2 x 1 in) front rail and battens, all on edge, 1.5m (5ft) is the safe maximum width.
A front rail has another advantage because, as well as giving man-made boards a respectably thick and natural look, it also hides the ends of the side battens. So does stopping them short of the shelf’s front edge and cutting the ends at an angle.
The shelf can be screwed or even just nailed to the battens to complete the job.
Unfortunately, both brackets and battens have one big drawback: once they’re fixed, they’re permanent. So you might consider an adjustable shelving system which gives you the chance to move shelves up and down. Such systems consist of uprights, screwed to the wall, and brackets which slot into them at almost any point down the length.
There are two main types. In one, brackets locate in vertical slots in the uprights. The other has a continuous channel down each upright. You can slide brackets along it and lock them at any point along the way, where they stay put largely because of the weight of the shelf. With both types, brackets come in standard sizes suitable for shelf widths, and there’s a choice of upright lengths to fulfil most needs.
Many proprietary shelving systems of this sort include a number of accessories to make them more versatile. These include book ends, shelf clips and even light fittings.